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fulfilled but also that the American Association of 
Museums may be able in the near future to make and 
carry out a definite plan to enable college graduates 
to undertake in two or more American Museum gradu- 
ate work leading to Art Museum positions. This 
would enable teachers of the History of Art in colleges 
to encourage and direct those of their students who 
may anticipate taking up work in Art Museums. 

Further the College Art Association of America 
believes that those who hope to secure positions in 
Mhiseums in the United States should be well trained 
in the History and Criticism of American Art. 

6:30 P. M. 

Dinner at Hotel Sinton followed by a "Round Table" discussion on: 
"What Kind of Technical Art shall Be Taught to the A. B. 

James R. Hopkins, Cincinnati Art Museum. 

When a phase of education gives rise to as many 
divergent opinions as does the subject of Art Train- 
ing, it must be because of an uncertainty as to the 
function of that subject or a misconception of the aim 
in teaching it. Far be it from me, a mere painter of 
pictures, to even attempt a formula for the function of 
Art, but the function of Art Education is more easily 

I dare say you have all produced some form of 
Art. I remember very well that my first production 
was a group of pink roses on a green velvet banner, 
hung from a brass rod and a brass cord and a brass 
nail on the wall of my mother's parlor. If you did not 
perpetrate that same kind of horror you probably did 
something just as bad or worse, in the line of your 
particular predilections. We painted to produce an 
illusion of reality not for the thing itself but for the 
things we connected with it — the memories it might 
invoke. Our efforts found approval in an audience 
whose memories were similarly invoked by our crude 
illusions and whose appreciation depended upon those 


You are familiar with that audience. It's attitude 
is much the same today and explains the presence, iu 
every doctor's office, of a reproduction of Rembrandt's 
"Anatomy Lecture." The doctor likes it. He knows 
that one of the tendons is wrongly attached and prides 
himself on his ability to ignore that flaw in what 
must be a masterpiece, since it moves him so thor- 
oughly. He ignores the fact that the mental distrac- 
tions he experiences may not be art appreciation but 
a reference to the happy days of his youth — that for 
him the charm in this picture comes from what it is 
able to stir up in the old material of his life. I have 
no intention of comparing this great work of Rem- 
brandt's with our first creations but it was ; this same 
kind of an appeal that saved them from immediate 
oblivion, this valuation which asked only what we were 
able to furnish — a reminder, a stimulant to memory. 

Those of us who have kept on painting have come 
finally to produce another art with another appeal and 
we find occasional appreciation for work which can 
offer no association of memories, which arouses none 
of our past sensations of living. We have come by 
some process from one extreme to the other> What 
is it that has happened to us? What gradual evolu- 
tion has taken place in painter and patron to take us 
out of that natural condition which demands that a 
work of art shall refer back to the sensations and the 
old material of our lives? 

This change through which have passed both 
painter and connoisseur is a process of liberation — lib- 
eration from the association of memories — necessary 
alike for the artist and one who appreciates his work. 
There can be no doubt that the function of Art Educa- 
tion is to induce this liberation. 

We hear much of the cultural value of art educa- 
tion — that the university will not set the proper stand- 
ard of culture unless art be included in its courses. 
We maintain in this that there are two things to be 


gained. We teach art for the sake of general culture 
and in order to furnish artists for future generations. 
We hear from all sides that the problem is especially 
complicated because of these two aims, because stu- 
dents may become artists or may wish only to develop 
an appreciation. You cannot question that the psy- 
chological process must be the same in both cases, 
must liberate from the thralldom of ideas, must make 
art a matter of the eye instead of a matter of intel- 
lect. For the painter, sculptor, designer, connoisseur, 
or plain citizen who wishes to know about art, we must 
induce this process of liberation from a dependence 
upon the memories and ideas of life by substituting a 
higher, a more impelling appreciation — an aesthetic 
appreciation of line and mass and color, the visual 
phases of art. 

Can we hope to arrive at this end by an intellec- 
tual revel in history and dates and classifications and 
interpretations! No! We can hope to arrive at this 
end only by visual exercises. That is our problem to- 
night, and always — What kind of visual exercises, 
technical training, will best inculcate a realization of 
the finer qualities of line and mass and color which 
make up a work of art? 

There can be but one way to answer this— a study 
of these qualities, as we find them in the work of ar- 
tists, as we find them in nature, and the attempt to 
use them in the creation of original work. That is, 
three kinds of technical work and I say this knowing 
very well the classic objection that the college student 
has not time for technical training. I think I should 
tell you that I have taught in a school where the time 
allowance for art was one hour a week and that what 
I have to say is based on my experience in teaching 
students who might never become artists and also on 
my experience in teaching prospective artists in the 
Art Academy of Cincinnati. 


I would like to remind you that since the student 
has so little time, that little becomes doubly precious 
and that technical means must be used to awaken his 
perceptions before he finishes his hour a week and is 
out of your reach forever! Let him then be always 
doing something that calls for a consideration of vis- 
ual qualities — when you show him the beauties of an 
old master let him have materials in his hands. Let 
him analyze its line and reproduce it. Let him divide 
it into masses of dark and light with charcoal or ink. 
Let him duplicate its color scheme with flat masses 
of color. If it be sculpture let him build up its larger 
shapes with clay or wax. This study of works of art 
should be entirely analytical — a purely technical pro- 
cess to find out how they are made up — to show what 
are their elements of beauty. 

This necessitates learning to draw their shapes as 
well as to recognize them and for this there is nothing 
so quickly productive of results as drawing from na- 
ture. The continual looking for proportion, the conse- 
quent familiarity with form, the definite connection be- 
tween eye and hand, work together to engender that 
new point of view that is the first requisite. What a 
misconception of the aim of art training to say that 
the student has not time to learn to draw from nature ! 
As if drawing from nature were a result instead of a 
means to an end! Drawing from nature is for the 
purpose of training the eye to see beauty. It is a uni- 
versal, a perpetual prescription for the cultivation of 
that state of mind that accepts beauty as an end in 

The third phase of technical training should be 
the complement of the analytical study of works of art 
and should consist in a synthetic use of the elements 
isolated in our analyses of the masters. This is a 
real creative work, the making of formal and inform- 
al arrangements of line, the association of masses of 
dark and light, the combination of color harmonies, 


the building up of sculptural masses. These exercises 
should be done with frank disregard for obvious and 
insignificant craftsmanship but with the clear purpose 
of making a logical evolution from the use of the sim- 
plest organization to the most complex. 

Now are you going to accuse me of making art 
academic? Of letting the student handle so many 
materials that he can handle none of them well? Let 
me assure you that we have to do not with a matter 
of processes but with a point of view. I do not care 
how much or how little the student acquires of a tech- 
nique of oil painting if he acquires a realization of the 
fact that color is a means to a high state of aesthetic 
exaltation. I do not care if he handles modelling wax 
as a child making mud pies if he learns to look for 
something more than surface imitation in a work of 
sculpture. I do not care how well or how badly he 
practices any of the processes of art if he acquires that 
condition which must be the aim of all art education, 
a freedom from the association of memories, vision 
detached from practical reactions. 

We may or may not produce professional artists 
but those who do wish to give their whole energies to 
creative work will have nothing to unlearn and those 
whose efforts end with one hour a week, will have ac- 
quired an artist's focus for the beauties of the world 
— a real art understanding. 

Discussion by William M. Hekkino, Kansas. 

Has it occurred to you that the building you are 
in, the chairs you occupy, the clothes that adorn you 
and the plate and cutlery that have just served in 
making your inner man more peaceful — were all built 
or manufactured from a drawing? 

We could go on and on in this strain, but does 
not this suffice to show you that there is not a more 
practical course in any college curriculum than a thor- 


ough presentation of the constructive principles of 
freehand drawing and design? 

The layman does not realize that the college art 
course as given in many schools to-day is a misnomer ; 
that we are tolerated with more or less suspicion by 
the college authorities on the one hand, and we find 
the same suspicion directed toward us from the first 
class art schools on the other. 

In every great endeavor there must be a strong 
and healthy program. The author of this paper be- 
lieves that it is useless to attempt to convince anyone, 
professional or layman, of the value of drawing, in 
connection with any Arts and Letters degree, until the 
technical work is sound! 

SoundW I say. Let me not be misunderstood! 
Drawing — plain freehand drawing and design — enough 
of it to insure reasonable accuracy of vision with the 
majority of intelligent students — can never be taught 
by means of the practices that are common on many a 
university and college campus to-day. 

'To copy designs from a book; to mis-interpret a 
theory of design by arranging a number of motives 
already designed in a text; to copy the reproduction 
of the work of other artists ; in short — to copy, this is 
one of the greatest sins that our great educational in- 
stitutions in this country permit within their halls.' 

The author of this paper believes that any man or 
woman who has the nerve to stand up before a class 
of young people — unprepared, and uncertain as to the 
fundamental principles of drawing and design, who 
can not personally correct a student's problem except 
by hearsay, — is a parasite, and the sooner our univer- 
sities awaken to this fact, the sooner will we rid our- 
selves of an ominous odor that has made serious stu- 
dents shun our various drawing departments, bringing 
us in their stead, worthless, useless, insincere student 
material — people who were not looking for work that 


demanded sound investigation. 'Every problem in an 
efficient course in freehand drawing or design is an 
original investigation. I challenge any college man 
to prove me wrong. 

On the other hand, a half-hearted eulogistic course 
—with variations and earmarks of all the numerous 
phases of the plastic arts combined in one — is an in- 
sult to a serious minded student, and should receive 
the proper airing wherever it is presented. 

The difference between a bluffer and an experi- 
menter on a college faculty, is all the difference be- 
tween a dull, poorly equipped, empty headed individ- 
ual who preys on the student body behind the profes- 
sional cloak, and the resourceful, ingenious instructor 
with a broad and intelligent mental background, whose 
enthusiasm and leadership impregnates the student 
mind with ideas and desires for new fields of inves- 
tigation — be they in the Arts, the Letters, or the 

Members of the College Art Association: the 
writer believes that we can not hope to be recognized 
by our sister departments until we can show by our 
product that the art departments connected with the 
universities mean business. To this end two essential 
requirements loom up here as they do in every other 
college department: 

First — adequate equipment. 

Second — a staff of instructors whose hearts are 
in the work, and whose work can not be challenged at 
the first turn of the road. 

We should not carry the eyes of scrutiny on each 
other: we should turn them on the department with 
which each of us is personally connected. 

Let no one be mis-led into believing that a nation 
of artists would spring up after a thorough house- 
cleaning of this kind. No indeed ! That is neither pos- 
sible nor desirable. If we could but reach the major- 


ity of the students entering American universities, and 
leave a lasting imprint on each of them, we would ex- 
perience a new condition of affairs within the next 
generation. And who can say what the possibilities 
of the next decade might reasonably be? 

Discussion by Louis Weinberg, College of the City of New York. 

What I propose to discuss in the short time which 
remains is the plan for a course on Design in every 
day Life as a required feature of every college curri- 
culum. Although this may seem far removed from 
the larger topic of Technical Art Courses for the B. 
A. Degree, I am inclined to consider the province of 
interior decorating, window dressing, page layouts for 
advertising posters or circulars, city planning, com- 
munity pageants as a field for a technical course or 
courses, as important to say the least as courses in 
clay modelling or painting. The great misfortune 
which art labors under in American education is the 
atmosphere of aristocracy, exelusiveness and super- 
fineness which surrounds it. Easel painting and stat- 
ues are expensive and most people consider them lux- 
uries. The purchase of million dollar collections by 
collectors, far from removing the awe in which art is 
held, increased it. Art for most is something which 
was created in the dim and distant past, or if contem- 
porary comes from a foreign country. It is something 
which people with millions can indulge in during their 
lifetime to make a name with on their death. The 
men who create it are temperamental freakishly im- 
practical people. Art is something amusing to read 
about in novels of Bohemian life, dull to read about 
in books on How to Enjoy Art, tiresome to look at in 
the big museums. 

This respect for art as a superfine frill in the 
garment of life, the occupation of leisure moments, the 
fad of dilettante, the expression of a sort of exclusive 
class is not only undemocratic, not only hurtful to the 
artists and to their public alike, but it is, absolutely 


The artists, the art instructors, and the critics of 
the land would do much for art in democracy, for art 
in education if they would remove the halo which en- 
circles art. The people of America will not become in- 
terested in the aesthetic side of life until they realize 
that the aesthetic impulse and expression is almost as 
fundamental as the need for food. The place of aes- 
thetics or the desire for sensuous appeal and harmony 
of line color, pattern, reveals itself in almost every 
phase of life. It is present in manufacturing in that, 
other things being equal, the element of taste, orig- 
inality in design will give one a lead over another. It 
is present in merchandising or selling methods in that, 
all other things being equal, the firm which has the 
most stirring aesthetic appeal will hold attention. It 
is present in realty operations and construction in that 
undoubtedly the town development corporation with 
the greatest sense for the place of design in life and the 
aesthetic appeal of color and arrangement, will, all 
other things being equal, be most successful. 

To be more concrete in the field of manufacture 
of ten firms manufacturing steam radiators, the firm 
which will produce the most harmonious radiator will 
do the largest volume of business.' In the field of mer- 
chandising of ten restaurants on one avenue, the one 
with the most tasteful arrangement will attract the 
largest number. Of twenty-five business circulars an- 
nouncing sales or soliciting patronage the one designed 
by the person most cognizant of the value of aesthetic 
appeal will be the most effective. 

That there is constant opportunity and need in 
business for a knowledge of aesthetic principles of 
color, line, pattern, must therefore be granted. Who 
will deny the opportunity for aesthetics in the home, 
in the selection of furnishing, of color schemes, in 
the hanging of pictures and the arrangement of 
masses. Who will deny that the desire for beauty in 


the home is a fundamental one, common to almost all ; 
and that its gratification is balked through ignorance 
more than through poverty. The time is past when 
beauty in the home was looked upon as a thing to be 
achieved by buying expensive things, rather than by 
taste in each and harmony in the relation of all. 

But answers the "conscientious objector" "how 
bout the expert? surely these are all fields for expert 
advice. There is no need of courses in interior deco- 
rating window display, advertising layout. The college 
graduate if ever he goes into business can buy expert 
advice, or aesthetic service. If he goes into marriage, 
he can engage a trained decorator." But this quite 
misses the mark. Decorators cannot be tasteful for 
us. They can have a greater knowledge of the details, 
of the mechanics, and of cost; their experience will 
have led them to know much more of the possibilities 
of the mediums in which they work; they may have 
more imagination ; but the layman must get two things 
out of his education if he is to choose his expert well. 
In the first place his college course should have made 
him realize the place of aesthetics in life as a tremen- 
dously important active principle, in the second place 
he should through a general course on Design in Every 
Day Life and in the effort to handle practical aesthetic 
problems have learnt the underlying principles of de- 

Such a course besides cultivating skill would open 
up a whole side of life, just as psychology, as econom- 
ics, as sociology does in the field of fact and theory 
in human functions and relations, just as physics does 
in the field of fact and theory in physical relations. 

Art courses in drawing and modelling and pure 
designing where practice is permitted are always pop- 
ular because of the self activity. The student is doing 
something instead of listening to somebody and he 
finds it a relief. How much more pleasure when the 
course is one on everyday applications of design prin- 


ciples and the problems bear directly on the whole 
field of life which surrounds him. Everywhere he 
goes the world unfolds itself from a new and previ- 
ously unsuspected angle. The bill boards, the store 
windows, the store interiors, clothes of women, men 
and children, the chair he sits in, the hanging of the 
pictures on the walls, the lay out of a newspaper, the 
title page of his book, the rug, the glasses and bottles 
out of which the wine he drinks flows, are all composi- 
tions of line, color, form, good, bad or indifferent. 
His observation quickened by his new realization of 
the practical value of good composition lead him into 
a world transformed. 

Is it not almost inconceivable that erudition and 
an accumulation of knowledge about the history of 
things should be given so high a place in the college 
curriculum, while skill, taste, knowledge of principles 
in the harmonizing of things should be practically 
slurred. Conceive of the position of a Mr. Newlywed 
B. A. and Mrs. Newlywed B. S. going out to purchase 
the furnishings for their home. They have studied 
almost all the isms and the ologies. They have found 
a job and one another. They are now choosing the 
wall paper, their sitting room set, their china, their 
pictures. What have they learnt to guide their judg- 
ment? It is possible that in the high schools in an 
elementary course in design they made watch fobs, 
initial letters, stencils for blotter corners, even an ad- 
vertising poster ; but this would hardly suffice for the 
judgments they are now called upon to make. 

If they have any standard at all it is quite likely 
to be the standard of the boy I read about. He was 
the guiding spirit on a gift committee to select the 
present for the school principal. His parents knowing 
his extravagant taste were worried when he refused 
to be advised by them insisting that he knew just 
what to get. At the Commencement Day Exercise 
much to their surprise when the gift was unwrapped 


and presented it proved to be a color print of the 
Mona Lisa very quietly and harmoniously framed. 
On being asked to explain who had helped in the se- 
lection the lad stoutly maintained to his mother that 
he had chosen his gift without aid. There were lots 
of other pictures there that we liked, but we didn't 
buy one of them. We knew they couldn't be art. But 
this one we none of us liked. So I knew it must be 
fine. Then instead of a nice shiny frame, we got an 
old dark one without any shine. What a sure test! 

Mr. & Mrs. Newlywed like that boy are quite apt 
to feel that as educated people they ought to have "re- 
fined" tastes. "Refinement" means getting things 
simple. So the best that can be expected is the exer- 
cise of a timid restraint based on fear of excess, rather 
than a wholehearted happy selection, based on knowl- 
edge. For the most part, their choices are dictated by 
the education unconsciously acquired in the homes 
they visited and is quite likely to imitate effects seen 
and remembered. Compositions, planned with love, 
taste and a foundation of knowledge, are rare. Most 
homes are just accidents, hastily thrown together. 
Isn't it an oversight in our educational theory which 
permits a man or woman to go out into life a Bachelor 
of the Arts, with the culture of the ages presumably, 
and yet in fact with no more basis of judgment than 
a truckdriver. 

What would be the nature of a course which would 
prepare for the thousand fold applications of design 
in daily life? Without insisting on the exact details 
what follows is a suggestion for exercises which would 
lead the student to a realization of the place of design 
in life, to a keen, interested observation of its mani- 
festations and to a practical working knowledge of its 

A brief course in pure design, lines, masses, col- 
ors, explaining fundamental principles. As this course 
might be given in the junior years after psychology, 


the psychology of harmony, and its principles might 
be demonstrated by simple practical tests. Harmony 
is likeness within variety. Likeness without variety is 
monotonous. Variety without likeness is discordant. 
How rhythm, balance, proportion, dominance, subordi- 
nation are means for maintaining likeness within 
variety is then demonstrated by simple almost mathe- 
matical exercises. It would be useful while consider- 
ing the fundamentals of design to use Raymonds 
books as reading so that the basic character of these 
princijples and their application in all the arts is 

This introduction should then be followed by 
practical problems in the fields of dress, furniture, pic- 
ture hanging, interior color schemes, window decora- 
tion of shops, business circulars, magazine layouts for 
advertising campaigns, community celebrations. 

The students will respond joyfully to a course 
which carries them in imagination into the active af- 
fairs of life; particularly if all the details of a given 
problem and the whole point of view are vividly pre- 

Let the problem be merchandizing. Then the 
students assume that they are a concern for automo- 
bile distribution. They are going to conduct an adver- 
tising campaign by a. Magazine Ads ; b. Circulars to 
a selected list; c. Window display. First then would 
come the problem of lay out, the effective distribution 
of copy, the dominance, emphasis, proportion, interest 
and style which the page must convey. To aid the 
student the instructor would have a portfolio of actual 
material; which would receive class analysis and cri- 
icism. For their circulars there would be the choice 
of stationery, color printing if other than black and 
white, typography, technique and cost of processes of 
reproduction. Window display offers the finest op- 
portunity for imagination and attention arresting 
ideas. There is opportunity with business as the cen- 


ter for a great diversity of problems, the shapes of 
labels and of boxes, the design, of fancy boxes, the 
color scheme, lighting and fixture arrangements of 
store interiors are among the problems which would 
interest some of the students. 

Leaving the field of merchandising for the field of 
manufacturing, radiators, lighting fixtures, furniture, 
fire-escapes, textile designs, all furnish interesting op- 
portunities for the student's criticism of existing de- 
signs, studies from catalogues, models and exhibits. A 
knowledge of practical considerations must of course 
be acquired by the instructor through conferences with 
manufacturers in these fields. In approaching the 
problem of lighting fixtures for example, the differ- 
ent materials and the various treatments of which they 
permit would have to be considered by the student. 

In home planning the students would one and all 
take a lively interest, as the den, the library, the club 
room furnish special problems which would be inter- 
esting to the most masculine of men; and as for the 
women where can a subject closer to a woman's heart 
be found, unless it is dress. Large sized Room Models 
should be part of the equipment, and with these by a 
little ingenuity the instructor can arrange to demon- 
strate principles of color harmony, mass arrangement, 
picture hanging and related details. 

Through cooperation with local manufacturers or 
department stores exhibitions could be arranged which 
would furnish the choicest models for criticism and 
example. Cooperation of this sort would be given 
with the greatest readiness as it is to the sales interest 
of the business man to focus attention on his place 
and works. 

Such a course given with spirit and enthusiasm 
would stimulate the student's interest in the romance 
of business, would make him see his home from a new 
angle. No matter what walk of life the graduate will 
go into, the time devoted to this kind of thought and 


practice, followed by years of observation, will show 
results. Nor must it be imagined that I am partisan 
in this matter. I do not look upon this course as a 
millennium bringing course. But one thing is certain 
if the character of our staple manufacturing is to be 
placed on a higher level of artistic excellence, only the 
training of such a course will bring to people some- 
thing of the freshness and beauty of Vision which the 
designer must possess. Moreover in the coming 
struggle for world progress, America, if it is to take 
its place, should have ready an army of skilled taste- 
ful craftsmen. For in world commerce as in internal 
commerce all other things being equal, taste and har- 
mony, dip the balance one way or the other. Let us 
begin now in our colleges the preparedness which will 
win us bloodless victories, triumphs in home planning, 
in retail selling, in corporation work and international 
triumphs in the markets of the world. 

FRIDAY, APRIL 6, 9:00 A. M. 

McMioken Hall, University of Cincinnati 
Addresses of Welcome: 

Charles William Dabney, President of the University of 

Randall Judson Condon, Superintendent of Schools, Cin- 
President's Address; John Pickabd, Missouri 

"Delenda est Carthago" was the battle cry of 
stern old Cato at the close of every speech he made 
to the Romans. 

So each time I come before this Association, I 
would remind you that we, the teachers of art in the 
colleges and universities of the country, we, the mem- 
bers of this Association, have a great educational work 
to do. 

This great work is not primarily to recommend 
to our colleges and universities the complete train- 
ing in the undergraduate course of the future archi- 
tect, sculptor, or painter. The education of the tech-